Big Data has been shown to have strong influence on decision making processes, and organizational setups across all kinds of organizations. This critical literature review draws on peer-reviewed literature to identify scholars’ perspectives on different implications, and questions the assumption that today’s data offers the basis for completely rational decision making. Therefore process-inherent boundaries like irrational human interaction and data quality issues are identified. Apart from the technical-rational dimension, Big Data has an impact on the social environment. This includes questions about the ethical legitimacy of data accumulation and usage. The literature review concludes that there is further shaping of organizations necessary, in order to leverage the potential Big Data offers. Lastly it addresses a number of research questions, which bear the potential to further develop this field of study.