Over the last decades, the topic of knowledge management (KM) has gained considerable popularity in academic and industry research. This literature review will use an epistemological angle of observation, to identify and classify the main perspectives through which KM has been discussed in the literature to date. On the one hand, a positivist epistemology implies the treatment of knowledge as data, and focuses on codifying it inside the domain of machines. On the other hand, an interpretivist stance recognizes knowledge as a socially constructed element, which stems from the multiple ways in which individuals construct reality. Effective economic utilization of knowledge is, instead, the objective of the pluralist perspective, whose focus is on the praxis implicit in the utilization of KM. In the conclusion, it is suggested that technological innovation is paramount in creating new, relevant streams of discussion within KM literature.